The lexicon of muscle-building, and training - Part 8

Cardiac reserve

The capacity of the heart to increase cardiac output over the resting value; the difference between maximum heart output and resting heart output.

Cardiorespiratory training

Cardiorespiratory training is often used interchangeably with cardiovascular training, aerobic exercise, and cardio. Aerobic work may, however, be insufficiently demanding to produce a cardiorespiratory training effect, depending on the intensity relative to the individual's level of fitness. A slow walk on the flat may produce a cardiorespiratory training effect for a sedentary 50-year-old, but a fast walk up an incline may be needed to produce a cardiorespiratory effect for a fit 25-year-old.

Cardiovascular training

Physical exercise that strengthens the heart and improves the efficiency of the whole system of heart, lungs, and blood vessels.


Any of three yellow or orange, fat-soluble pigments found in many plants, especially carrots, and transformed to vitamin A in the liver.


Dense connective tissue that consists of cells embedded in a tough but flexible base. Cartilage functions as support structure in the skeletal system.

Cartilaginous joint

A joint without a cavity or synovial fluid, held together by fibrous cartilage. It has only limited movement. The joint between two vertebrae is cartilaginous.


Destructive metabolism — the breaking down in the body (or any living organism) of more complex substances into simpler ones.

Central nervous system

The brain and spinal cord.


Attempt to provide qualifications for personal trainers, through a variety of unregulated organizations that provide a diversity of courses, examinations, and certificates. Certification may or may not be an indication of competence. There are competent exercise coaches who have no formal certification, and there are competent exercise coaches who do have formal certification. There are, however, incompetent coaches who have acquired some certification and thus can present an impression of competence. Even having a degree in physical education isn't an indicator of competence, as some courses include no study of strength training; and of the degree courses that do include strength training, it's usually rudimentary.

Many certified personal trainers are deficient in even basic training information, which makes a mockery of the course material covered for the certification, and also makes a mockery of the accrediting organization. With or without certification, a good trainer should have many years of personal experience and study of training additional to any certification course material.

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