The lexicon of muscle-building, and training - Part 9

There's much to learn. A good trainer also needs to have the ability to teach — knowing about something is one thing, being able to teach it is another thing.

Cervical vertebrae

Vertebrae in the neck, numbered C1 through C7. The first cervical vertebra (C1) is called the atlas, which supports the head, and the second cervical vertebra (C2) is called the axis. The seventh cervical vertebra (C7) is called the vertebra prominens.


The chalk that's used in the gym is magnesium carbonate. Chalk is most commonly used for grip support, especially in back exercises, upper-body pressing movements, and grip work.


Use of body English — sloppy exercise technique — to assist the target muscles with their work, or change joint angles for greater leverage. Cheating is one of the major causes of injury, and should be avoided. Disciplined training maintains correct exercise technique free of cheating even under the stress of great effort.

Chest expanders

See Cables.

Chinning bar

An overhead bar from which a number of exercises can be performed, including chin-ups (whereby the bar is held in the hands and the body is pulled up until the chin is above the bar).


A system of non-invasive medicine based primarily on the interactions of the spine and nervous system; the method of treatment that adjusts the segments of the spinal column. One who legitimately practices chiropractic, is a doctor of chiropractic. Many chiropractors have training beyond the standard chiropractic course, and are able to treat physical problems that may not have direct involvement with the spine.


A substance that occurs in all animal tissues, especially in the brain, spinal cord, and fat tissue. It functions chiefly as a protective agent in the skin and myelin sheaths of nerve cells, a detoxifier in the bloodstream, and as a precursor in the synthesis of many steroidal hormones.


Softening or degeneration of cartilage in a joint, especially of the kneecap.


Something of long duration — for example, a chronic injury or disease.

Circuit training

Moving quickly from exercise to exercise in a circuit, to maintain a sustained high heart rate in order to promote overall fitness, but while also building or maintaining some muscular size and strength. Although neither optimal for muscle-building nor cardiorespiratory conditioning, circuit training provides a mix of both from a time-efficient system. There are no rest intervals between exercises, or only short ones.

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