The lexicon of muscle-building, and training - Part 20


Movement that increases the angle between two bones, such as straightening out a bent elbow, and opening the fingers from a clenched fist. Extension is the opposite of flexion.


A muscle that extends or stretches a limb or other bodypart.

EZ-curl bar

Short barbell that has a number of bends or cambers in it, to enable the user to try to find the grip that feels the most comfortable. Although this bar is commonly used for the curl, it has other applications.


Failure (training to)

Method of training whereby a set is taken to the point at which you can't move the bar any further against gravity. This is also called training to momentary failure, or training to positive failure. At the point of failure, you either lower the resistance to a safe resting place, or a training partner helps you to complete the rep. In practice, most trainees could extend their “to-failure” sets by a rep or two or three if they were well supervised and motivated.

False grip

A grip commonly used in the barbell bench press and overhead press, where the thumb stays alongside the index finger. This is best avoided. A false grip is often called a thumbless grip. Wrapping the thumb fully around the bar and on top of one or more finger tips, produces a more secure grip.


Band or sheath of connective tissue that supports, binds, covers, and separates muscles and groups of muscles, and organs, too.

Fast-twitch fibers

Muscle fibers that fire quickly and are used in intensive anaerobic activities.


The United States Food and Drug Administration.




An indigestible component of food found in unrefined grains, vegetables, nuts, legumes, and fruits — an important component of a healthy diet.


An abnormal formation of scar or other fibrous tissue.


The outer and thinner of the two bones of the human leg extending from the knee to the ankle.


There's no standard definition of physical fitness. Fitness is relative to a given activity or purpose. For example, someone who's fit for playing as a goalkeeper in soccer may not necessarily be fit for playing in the outfield, and fitness for running doesn't translate to fitness for swimming. This book promotes a broad definition of total fitness, comprised of five components:


Strength and lean muscular development


Cardiovascular conditioning




General activity


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