The lexicon of muscle-building, and training - Part 21

Non-exercise factors including healthy nutrition, no drug abuse, sufficient quantity and quality of sleep, moderate exposure to sunshine (but don't get burned), good posture, healthy relationships, and satisfying work.

For sportsmen and sportswomen, the additional component of skills specific to the given sport would be necessary in order to be totally fit for that activity.

All five components need to be well supplied before an individual can be said to be fit and healthy. It's possible, for example, to be strong and well-developed but physically unfit. It's also possible to be extremely fit physically and yet not be healthy. Although it's highly desirable to be physically fit, there's much more to total fitness (and good health) than that.


Suppleness of muscle masses. Adequate flexibility is a requisite for exercising with correct, safe technique through a full or at least large range of motion. Tight muscles restrict joint movement, and general mobility.


Movement that decreases the angle between two bones. When you raise your hand through bending at your elbow, you're flexing your elbow. Flexion is the opposite of extension.

Food supplements

Food concentrates in tablets, capsules, powders, or liquid, used to enrich a diet or compensate for nutritional deficiencies. They include vitamins, minerals, and protein powders.


The amount of floor space taken up by an exercise apparatus.

Forced reps

Use of assistance to permit additional reps to be performed beyond the point at which the trainee concerned can perform them under his or her own efforts. Suppose you're pressing a weight overhead, and it gets stuck half way. If a helper was to give the bar a push, you would be able to perform the full rep. That assisted rep is a forced rep. Forced reps are often called assisted reps.


Another term for exercise technique — the manner of exercise execution.


A break or rupture in a bone.

Freehand exercise

Calisthenic exercise performed without equipment, such as the push-up.


Barbells, dumbbells, plates, and related movable or “free” equipment, as opposed to machines.

Full-body routine

Method of working the entire body in one routine that's performed at a single workout, as distinct from a split or divided program that targets particular bodyparts or exercises each session. A full-body routine is also called a whole-body routine.


Gastrointestinal tract

The part of the digestive system that includes the stomach and intestines.

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