The lexicon of muscle-building, and training - Part 23

Furthermore, while strength training has potential value to all three of these men, it's highly unlikely that they inherited the genetic requirements for elite achievement in the bodybuilding or strength fields.

Similar things can be said for responsiveness to cardiovascular training. A few people are phenomenally responsive, a few have very poor responsiveness, whereas most are somewhere in between. A few have phenomenal cardio fitness potential — such as Bradley Wiggins — whereas the great majority of people have average potential.

The best that each of us can do, is the best that each of us can do. That's why it's important that you compete with yourself, rather than others. Keep bettering yourself, again and again and again, and over a period of years you'll go as far as your genetics will allow, or at least get close, and that may constitute an astonishing transformation relative to where you are now.

The entries for Easy gainer, Hard gainer and Muscle bellies have additional information on how genetics affect muscle-building.


Any organ that secretes a substance that's used elsewhere in the body.


Abbreviation for the three hip or buttock muscles — gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and gluteus minimus.

Glycemic index (GI)

A rating system for carbohydrates that indicates how quickly sugar enters the bloodstream from the digestive tract, and the extent of the following insulin response.


Primary storage form for carbohydrates in the liver and muscle tissue.


The various ways that bars are held, which affect musculature involvement, safety, and amount of weight that can be held. See False grip, Parallel grip, Pronated grip, Reverse grip, and Supinated grip.

Ground-based exercises

Exercises that are performed while standing on the floor. For example, the squat is a ground-based thigh exercise, but the leg press isn't, and the standing overhead press is a ground-based exercise, but the bench press isn't.


Slang for biceps, or biceps and triceps together.


Graded exercise protocol, a prescriptive form of hard cardio work taking just 12 to 15 minutes two times a week, which produces substantial benefits out of proportion to its time investment. The GXP was first developed by Dr. Robert Otto, and then adapted and studied by Drs. Ralph N. Carpinelli, Lesley D. Fox, Richard A. Winett, and Janet R. Wojcik.


A location for exercising in. Although most people may think of specialist gyms such as a Gold's Gym, gyms can also be found at health clubs, YMCAs, schools, colleges, universities, and leisure centers.

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