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The lexicon of muscle-building, and training - Part 26

Hormone

A regulatory substance produced in a gland or other organ that's carried in the blood to another part of the body, where it stimulates specific responses.

HR

Heart rate.

HRmax

Maximum heart rate.

HR reserve

Heart rate reserve.

See Heart rate reserve.

HRrest

Heart rate at rest.

Humerus

Bone of the arm (above the elbow).

Hyperextension

Overextension of a limb or other bodypart.

Hyperglycemia

Abnormally high level of glucose in the blood, often associated with diabetes.

Hypermobility

Excessive movement in a joint.

Hyperplasia

Abnormal multiplication of cells; enlargement of a part because of an abnormal, numerical increase of its cells, such as muscle fibers, which doesn't appear to take place in humans.

Hypertension

High blood pressure.

Hypertrophy

Increase in size of a tissue (usually muscle), or organ — opposite of atrophy.

Hypoglycemia

An abnormally low concentration of glucose in the blood, usually resulting from excess production of insulin, or inadequate intake of food.

I

IFBB

International Federation of Bodybuilders, the organization founded by brothers Joe and Ben Weider, in the 1940s, to organize bodybuilding competitions.

Indirect effect

The belief that when a given muscle grows in response to training, the whole musculature of the body grows, although to a much lesser degree. There have been reports, for example, that training one arm has reduced the atrophy in the musculature of the other arm, which was in a cast. The greater the muscle mass directly involved in an exercise, the greater the musculature that's indirectly affected by that exercise.

Inferior

Directional term meaning lower in place or location, or toward the feet — opposite of superior.

Inflammation

Localized, protective response produced by destruction or injury of tissues — characterized by redness, swelling, pain, tenderness, heat, and disturbed function of an area of the body.

Inguinal

Of, pertaining to, or situated in the groin — for example, an inguinal injury.

Insertion, of a muscle

The point of attachment of a skeletal muscle that moves when that muscle contracts — opposite of the origin point. For example, the insertion of the calf or gastrocnemius is the calcaneus or heel bone.

Insomnia

A condition where one is unable to fall asleep, or where one awakens prematurely and is often unable to return to sleep.

Insulin

A hormone produced by the pancreas that enables cells to take in glucose, among many other effects.

Intensifiers

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