The lexicon of muscle-building, and training - Part 44

Olympic barbells have revolving sleeves at the ends (where the plates are loaded), for easiest handling.

An exercise barbell with a revolving sleeve between the inside collars is a compromise solution between the plain exercise barbell, and the more expensive Olympic bar.


Acronym for the four-stage response to many types of acute injuries: rest, ice, compression, and elevation.


Extreme definition, cuts or muscularity, to the point where there's no visible fat.


Slang for anabolic steroids


An alternative to chalk, used for grip support, especially in back exercises, upper-body pressing movements, and grip work. Also called resin.

Rotator cuff

The area where the tendons of four small muscles on the upper back and shoulder area — supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor — fuse with the tissues of the shoulder joint, to rotate the humerus.

Rounding (of the back)

When the upper back is rounded, the shoulders slump forward, and the lower back is flattened whereby the natural inward curve of the lower back is lost. In some exercises, such as the squat and the deadlift, if the lower back is rounded this especially increases the risk of injury. This is because the back is put in a weak, disadvantaged position for bearing and lifting weights.


A list of exercises, sets, and reps used in one training session. There can be strength-training routines, cardio routines, and flexibility routines. A routine is also called a schedule, and sometimes a program.



The fusion of five sacral vertebrae numbered S1 through S5, directly beneath the fifth lumbar vertebra.

Safety bars

Bars — adjustable or fixed — designed to catch a barbell if control is lost. The pins of a power rack are safety bars. Some squat stands or racks have safety bars built into the structure, which may or may not be adjustable to meet individual needs for height.

SAID principle

Acronym for specific adaptation to imposed demands. See Specificity of exercise.


The large, flat triangular bone that forms the back part of the shoulder or pectoral girdle, also called the shoulder blade.


Pain in the lower-back, buttock, thigh, and leg, usually resulting from compression of the sciatic nerve.

Sciatic nerve

Largest diameter nerve in the body, formed by nerve roots that exit the intervertebral levels L4, L5, S1, S2, and S3. The sciatic nerve travels through the rear of the pelvis, and down the back of the thigh, and has many branches throughout these areas.

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