The lexicon of muscle-building, and training - Part 47

In adults it measures about 28 inches (70 centimeters) in length. (There are 33 or 34 vertebrae in a child, but because of fusions that occur in the lower part of the spine, there are usually just 26 separate bones in the adult spinal column.) Ribs and muscles attach to the vertebral column, and contraction of these muscles permits the spine to bend in several directions. Most vertebrae are separated from one another by oval, shock-absorbing, intervertebral disks. These disks form the cartilaginous joints between vertebrae. The spine is divided into five distinct regions — from top to bottom, the cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, and coccyx.

Split routine (or split program)

Method of dividing the body into two or more groups of bodyparts, training each group with a different routine, and alternating or rotating the routines over successive workouts. For example, exercises for the thighs, buttocks, back, and biceps may be grouped together, with the rest of the body in another group of exercises, to produce two routines that are alternated from workout to workout. Although a divided program also spreads the total list of exercises over two or more workouts, there may not be the stress on bodypart training that there is in the split routine. Furthermore, split-routine training usually involves more exercises and sets, and commonly leads to overtraining for most trainees.


Immobility and fusion of vertebral joints.


Assistance for someone performing an exercise.

Spot reduction

The myth that fat can be removed from a specific spot on the body through localized exercise — typically the waist on a man, and thighs and hips on a woman. This has led, for example, to trainees doing high reps and many sets for their abs in the mistaken belief that it will lead to fat reduction on the waist.

It's possible to have a well-defined waistline without having done any direct waist exercise, and it's possible to have a flabby waistline while having done daily, high-rep ab work for years. Bodyfat needs to be reduced over the whole body to produce fat reduction in any specific area. Although there are many dietary interpretations of how to achieve the result of drawing on fat reserves, the basic principle of producing a sustained, caloric deficit is the same.

Genetic factors are often involved in accounting for uneven bodyfat distribution. Some women will always have lower bodies that are, proportionately, larger and fatter than their upper bodies no matter how much dieting and exercise they do.

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