The lexicon of muscle-building, and training - Part 49

This is especially the case for beginning and intermediate trainees. Advanced bodybuilders often focus on matters other than increasing their strength, including muscular hypertrophy without any strength gain, increased definition, overall muscular balance, and contest preparation.

Strength training is sometimes used for building strength when visible muscular hypertrophy is secondary, or even unwanted. In injury rehabilitation, for example, strength gain and functional improvement are the primary goals; and for some athletes, strength gain is desired but without significant muscular hypertrophy, because additional bodyweight may hinder their athletic performance, or alter their weight class. There are, however, some footballers and rugby players, for example, who are dedicated to strength training but who often require hypertrophy and bodyweight gain, to help overpower opponents.

In this book, progressive resistance is a cornerstone of the weight-training routines. This is a form of strength training. At what pace, and to what degree it will produce strength improvements or muscular hypertrophy, depends on the quality and consistency of training, and how well the components of recuperation are satisfied, and the gender, age and genetic potential for muscular growth of the individual. This form of strength training can also be called bodybuilding, and muscle-building.

The specific terminology used to describe the resistance training isn't important. What's important is that you train safely and effectively.

Stretch marks

Tears and slight scars in the skin usually produced when increases in fat and muscle mass take place faster than the skin can accommodate. These marks may be caused or encouraged by nutritional shortcomings. Stretch marks in the area where the biceps, pectorals, and deltoids come together can be produced by an exaggerated range of motion in some chest exercises.


The grooves or ridge marks seen under the skin on a ripped physique.

Stroke volume

The volume of blood pumped from a ventricle as it contracts.


Directional term meaning higher in place or location, or toward the head — opposite of inferior.

Super set

The alternating between two exercises, done with little or no rest between sets.

When two exercises that work different musculature are alternated (which some trainees interpret as compound training, rather than super-set training), one set of muscles gets rested to a degree while another set is worked.

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