Other substances

These include pollen, rich in vitamin C and protein, small amounts of bees' salivary enzymes, plant-growth hormones, rooting compounds and fragments of beeswax, propolis and bees' body parts.

Honey also contains tiny amounts of lipids from plants' essential oils. They include certain fatty acids (such as palmitic, oleic acid, lauric, stearic and linoleic acids), hydrocarbons, waxes, cholesterol esters, fatty-acid esters, fatty alcohols, sterols, di- and trihydroxy compounds, and polyol esters. Some contribute to honey's scent and flavour.

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